Russian X-ray telescope that will open up new space objects

[ScienceNology] - International Orbiting Astrophysical Observatory «Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma» (AWG) will be equipped Russian X-ray telescope that will open up new space objects.

The project agreement was signed by the AWG at the international air space between the Federal Space Agency (Roskosmos) and the German Aerospace Center (DLR). AHWG Observatory is scheduled to start in 2012 for a term of seven years. It is designed to survey the entire sky specular X-ray telescopes in the hard energy range (0,5-11 keV). Review will be a record due to its high sensitivity, which is a large effective area of mirror systems, high angular resolution optics and extremely large telescopes for such a field of view.

As the press service of the Institute for Space Research (IKI), with the new X-ray Observatory to be found about 100 thousands of new galaxy clusters and more than 3 million new active nuclei of galaxies in the center of which, presumably, are superheavy black holes. Information about large-scale structure of the universe, obtained on the basis of clusters of galaxies is crucial to study its evolution, including, for the understanding of the role it played in the so-called «dark energy». In addition, based on data on AHWG nuclei of active galaxies can be studied the growth and evolution of superheavy black holes.

Earlier X-ray review of the entire sky was made by the satellite ROSAT (Germany / United States / United Kingdom, 1990-1999), but only in the «soft» (0,5-2 keV) energy range and the worst, about 40 times the sensitivity. Because of the strong interstellar or internal absorption at low energies, many interesting X-ray sources were not detected.

The observatory will be equipped with a two AHWG specular X-ray telescopes: eROSITA (Germany) - the basic tool for the mission weighing 760 kg, which works in the energy range 0,5-10 keV, and the unit ART-XC (Russia), weighing 350 kg, supplementary tool in a German hard energy range 6-30 keV.

Orbit, which will work Observatory (in the vicinity of the point of L2) - one of the five existing in the sun - the Earth points where the perturbing gravitational effects on the spacecraft from the Sun and the Earth reduced to a minimum. Point L2 (Libration point) is located on the sun - the Earth at 1.5 million miles of Earth.

First, the observatory will not pass through the Earth's radiation belts, which have to disconnect the equipment from the damaging effects of the flow of charged particles in the electronic components of devices. Secondly, here the most comfortable temperature, because the sun is always located on the one hand, to the Earth to the Moon and very far away, and the heat flow from them do not make any perturbation, temperature at which the work equipment is stable. Finally, the apparatus of the orbit does not go into the Earth's shadow, and solar panels will be able to ensure energy devices.

Home Organization for scientific equipment Observatory - IKI. According to ground-and space complex «AHWG» parent organization - the Scientific-Production Association to them. SA Lavochkin. The project also involved the Russian Federal Nuclear Center - All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (Sarov), in cooperation with the IKI is developing the telescope ART-XC. On the German side of the project involved the German Aerospace Center, Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, and several other institutions of society to them. Max Planck and universities.

Source :  Science and life , 20 August 2009

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